Knowing pesantren in Indonesia. As you know that boarding is a unique name that exist in Indonesia. This name is reserved for Islamic educational institutions in Indonesia that provide dormitories for students. Students at the pondok pesantren are often referred to as a student. The leader of the boarding school is generally invoked by Kyai or ustadz or Ajengan according to similarities in the area. It also calls the Kyai/cleric or ustadz/religious teachers based on a kind of boarding school. For teachers, ustadz are commonly used to call them.
To know in brief about pondok pesantren, there is some sense used by experts or scholars, both in language and meaning of the term. Quoted from zamakshsyari Dhofier, that the cottage was taken from funduq word (فندق). It refers to a building where the boarding school became a dormitory for students who live and carry out daily activities outside their daily activities learning activities. While the “pesantren” comes from the word “santri” given to-and -an additional words (bahasa indonesia grammar) that became the word “pesantren”, or place for the santri. On the other hand the santri is a combination of “Sant” and “tra” words. The meaning sant is nice guy and say TRA is “likes to help”. In that way, the combination of these words mean a good person who likes to help, which is one of the goals of general education and emphasized in schools. In other words, schools can significantly as the location of a good education for the good of man. Meanwhile, according to Clifford Albert Geertz known as Clifford Greetz, one anthropologist from America and many conduct research in Indonesia and particularly in schools that the word is derived from one of the languages in India namely Shastri. Expert Hindu meaning scientists write. And of course in this case as a human being adjusted understanding of Islam learned or clever in reading and writing (in particular Arabic writing). According to say that boarding is a modification of hindu (should the education system that is applied mainly in the hostel).
When viewed from either language translation into Arabic and english. many use the word ma’had islam in arabic. Meanwhile, when translated into English, people in pesantren often use the term “Islamic boarding school.
Daily activities in the dorms of pondok pesantren
For people outside the boarding school, may be curious about any daily activities that the students in the dorm. Basically activities can be divided into two, namely learning and students’ personal activities. In general boarding school, activities Starting from dawn namely by performing the dawn prayer in congregation (usually in the mosque boarding) continued to recite the Qur’an commonly called tadarus / nderes. There is also the Tahfidz students (students who memorized the Qur’an) has a repeating rote activities or usually called setoran (oral memorize the holy quran in front of the Kyai/chaplain or ustadz or senior santri. There are also at particular pondok pesantren which emphasized the lessons yellow book filled with yellow book (kitab kuning) lessons. with the guidance of a mentor or even clerics. Generally, if the lesson is done after the dawn prayer is religious instruction. After completion of the lesson activities / read the Qur’an after dawn, a common activity done by students is personal activities, such as bathing, washing clothes, breakfast, or even sleep, and also preparation for study in the class.
In the early morning hours until the afternoon or evening, the activities carried out is to learn. For students of junior high school and senior high school in formal education will be studied in accordance with the existing lessons, for students who did not take a formal certificate usually boarding school subjects such as lesson “kitab kuning” or memorize the Koran. For those students of a college conduct lessons in their respective campuses. After education time in the morning until the evening, generally, students are preparing the afternoon prayer (hsolat magrib). After Sholat magrib at the mosque, a common activities is reading the Koran followed by dinner. After dinner the next activity is evening prayers in congregation (sholat Isya). after Finished evening prayers students have a little time to rest for waiting the next activity. Approximately half an hour to rest the students then continue on his own in the form of learning in the classroom or the Koran yellow book
For modern boarding school the daily activites is study in the classroom, while the model pesantren Salaf ba’da Isha activities are learn the Yellow Book. After whole daily activities, the students sleep until dawn. Not all schools have this kind of activity. However, this kind of activity which is prevalent in the boarding school. In addition to daily activities, there is a routine that is often carried among boarding schools weekly or monthly or yearly such as boarding schools Salaf have regular activities barzanji or berjanjen, grave pilgrimage, tahlilan, and sometimes engage in religious tours to the tomb walisongo (usually once a year) and modern boarding school there are weekly routines activites such as muhadasah / conversation (learn to speak a foreign language, usually Arabic or English), muhadarah (learn speech), sometimes there are scouts and sports (eg karate, taekwondo, football, basketball) and other activities. students clean the dormitory during the holidays and do before they enjoy the holidays (commonly weekly activities)
What are the lessons learned in boarding school students?
For the layman or people outside the boarding schools may not know what is being taught in boarding school. Broadly speaking, it can be said that the boarding school is not just one type, there are Salaf and modern type, and also a model with no formal certificate that take non-formal diplomas and there are also schools that Just recite the yellow book without a diploma unless of pesantren. While the sharing of lessons, for boarding schools that have a formal education, for example, junior high school or junior high, senior high school or MA (Madrasah Aliyah) then the lessons that are given are the lessons that has been outlined by the Ministry of Education and Ministry in indonesia (Dinas Pendidikan) and Religious Affairs In Indonesia (Kementerian Agama), such as Biology, Mathematics, History , Indonesian, Social Education Science, and other subjects coupled with an emphasis in the field of Arabic and English, whereas religious education such as Fiqh, Aqeedah Ahlaq, Islamic Cultural History usually refers to the curriculum at the Indonesian Ministry of Religious (Kementerian Agama Republik Indonesia)
In modern pondok pesantren kinds, there is a formal school is usually less qualified in the field of Arabic grammar due to the many general studies at the boarding school. On boarding school the Salaf who have formal education, many of which in the morning after the morning prayer and evening prayer ba’da given extra lessons yellow book, the yellow kitb often taught is about worship and generally begins with taharah, or also Arabic grammatical lessons such nahwu shorof, it is not surprising that the salaf students more proficient in reading yellow book compared with modern students, but in oral, the student of modern pondok pesantren generally more proficient. For boarding school which focus in religion and arabic gramatical lessons (doesn’t take the formal certificate), the lessons are usually abot the Arabic grammar, fiqh of worship, muamalah, akidah ahlaq and others. That starts with taharah / purification and tajwid science lessons. Or for the tahfid boarding school filled with lesson of tajwid (the lessons how to read the holy qur’an) or tahsin (make better the reading of Qur’an) recitation and oral memorize the Qur’an in front of the teacher (murojaah). With so real lesson in boarding schools that have formal school lessons is commonly given in schools umumseperti in SMP or SMA coupled with religious subjects with an emphasis in foreign languages (arabic and english). While in boarding school Salaf, teh kitab kuning usually used such as Amtsilah book At-Tashrifiyah, Mushtholah Al-hadith, Arba’in Nawawi, At-Taqrib, Aqidatul Layman, Ta’limul Muta’alim, Book of the book mentioned above are book about of Arabic grammar , then the disciplines of hadith, fiqh common knowledge taught is about worship and muamalah, as well as the moral sciences, Warding prejudice any outside among the schools who thought taught something strange. not only the formal lessons and foreign languages lessons, but also the character is built. character education also taught them closer to the behavior of nabi Muhammad saw. Or commonly referred to ahlakul karimah with hasanah uswatun parameters of the prophet.
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To be continued.